UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND
COLLEGE PARK, MARYLAND
DISCRIMINATION ON CAMPUS: USING A CAMPUS NEWSPAPER
TO DEFEND A LAWSUIT
Mary D. Hill and William E. Sedlacek
Research Report # 8-94
Partial funding of the efforts for this research was furnished by
The President's Office of Legal Affairs at the University of
Maryland at College Park.
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND
COLLEGE PARK, MARYLAND
DISCRIMINATION ON CAMPUS: USING A CAMPUS NEWSPAPER TO DEFEND A
Mary D. Hill and William E. Sedlacek
Research Report # 8-94
When faced with a discrimination lawsuit over an affirmative action program, archival issues of the campus newspaper (the Diamondback) were used to document examples of negative racial climate over a 22 year period. Examples collected included articles, commentary, and letters to the editor about admissions, retention, student organizations, speakers invited to the campus, faculty tenure issues, student government, demonstrations, athletic teams and programs, and any aspect of campus life in which undesirable or negative consequences for Black students or faculty/staff were indicated. Examples were categorized separately for students and for faculty/staff according to academic and nonacademic areas. Academic areas for students were admissions,lack of role models, negative attitudes, and fewer graduates. Nonacademic categories for students were living arrangements, social life, alienation, negative attitudes, and other/general. For faculty/staff, the examples of negative racial climate were categorized simply into academic and nonacademic areas.
There was a consistent pattern of examples of negative racial climate against Black students found across the years with most examples occurring in nonacademic areas, especially in negative attitudes and "other/general" areas of experience. The academic area in which there were the greatest number of examples for students was admissions, but the more recent trend of the 1980's and 1990's reflected an increasing number of examples in fewer graduates. For faculty/staff, there was at least one example of negative racial climate depicted in the paper in nearly all years examined, with about twice as many examples in the nonacademic area compared to the academic area.
This form of historical research was a valuable tool in documenting the racial climate on campus, and it served to support and clarify other research on negative attitudes that had been conducted over the years. Reasons were found to justify continuation of a race-based scholarship, and these results were an important part of the University's legal defense. Colleges and universities might choose to engage in this type of research before they are challenged with lawsuits. Evaluating racial climate periodically may present opportunities for prevention and program adjustments that would enhance diversity on campus.
Discrimination on Campus: Using a Campus Newspaper to Defend a Lawsuit
Affirmative action programs are staples in the programs of most colleges and universities. Policies concerning recruitment and retention of students from a variety of racial, cultural, and ethnic groups are not only in place to satisfy legal requirements of "equal opportunity" clauses; but they also provide an enriched environment for all students in institutions of higher education.
Many of the affirmative action programs have used race-based scholarships, quotas, and special programs to ensure the recruitment and retention of students from minority groups (Sutter, 1994).
Recently, affirmative action programs in higher education have come under attack. Some groups argue that these programs have not gone far enough (Jordan, 1993) and amount to mere tokenism, while others advance the idea that these programs amount to a form of "reverse discrimination". In 1991, Michael Williams, Assistant Secretary of Education for Civil Rights cast doubt on the legality of race-based scholarships, stating that they might violate Title VI of the Civil Rights Act (Jaschik, 1994). However, in 1994 the U.S. Department of Education said that most colleges could legally offer minority-restricted scholarships in order to promote diversity and to remedy past discrimination (Jaschik, 1994). Conservative legal groups have vowed to file law suits against colleges offering these scholarships.
Legalities notwithstanding, are race-exclusive scholarships a good idea in higher education? on what can we base our decisions? one campus being sued for offering a race-exclusive scholarship is presently engaged in the struggle to resolve these issues. A combination of research activities from a student affairs office provided support for the legal defense.
A scholarship program was challenged at a large, eastern university when an Hispanic student filed a lawsuit against the university for being excluded from consideration for the award, because he was not African American.
The scholarship program was established at the university in 1979 as a merit-based scholarship program to increase the recruitment, retention, and graduation of African American students; to demonstrate the university's commitment to enrolling a more diverse and racially integrated student body; and to changing the perception that African American students are academically non-competitive. The scholarship was established at a unique point in the university's history. In 1969 the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare notified the state that continuation of its dual system of higher education constituted noncompliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1985, the scholarship was noted as one of the programs specifically instituted to promote the recruitment and retention goals set forth in the 1985-89 desegregation plan that was accepted as compliance with Title VI after negotiations with
federal and state governments and the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights. The 1985-89 desegregation plan expired in June 1990, and the state determined that the university would continue to adhere to the requirements of the plan.
In June, 1990, a freshman at the university filed a lawsuit in Federal District Court requesting an injunction against continuation of the scholarship program and compensatory relief in the form of a scholarship. He claimed that the race-exclusive nature of the program violated his constitutional rights.
In 1991, the court upheld the scholarship program on the grounds that it advances the compelling interest of limiting the present effects of past discrimination and was justified by findings of past discrimination which had been made by the Office of Civil Rights as well as by the university's efforts to eliminate those effects.
On appeal, the circuit court reversed and remanded the case holding that the federal government's findings of discrimination and ongoing monitoring are not constitutionally valid justifications for the scholarship program. The university had to demonstrate that there is a strong basis in evidence to conclude that present effects of past discrimination exist and to show that the program was narrowly tailored to remedy these effects.
Research on discrimination and attitudes had accumulated over the years at the university, but there was now a need to corroborate those results with historical evidence. The
university administration and its attorneys worked collaboratively with student affairs office researchers at the counseling center to attest to the climate for African American students and faculty/staff on campus.
In defining current vestiges of discrimination, it was generally accepted that under-representation was the primary effect of past discrimination; and it affected admissions, enrollment, retention, and graduation.
On October 22, 1993 cross motions for summary judgements were filed in Federal District Court. The pivotal question was: after confronting the injustices of its past would the university be able to seek to remedy the resulting problems in the present? Namely, would the university be able to use 1% of its budget to provide 30, high-achieving, African American students with a scholarship every year?
In November, the university's motion for summary judgment was granted on the strength of the strong evidence of present effects of past discrimination. The judge noted a ripple effect of discrimination that affects every aspect of our economy and society. He stated that it was proper to correct for these effects, and educators must be able to fashion appropriate remedies. The plaintiff filed an appeal with the U.S. Court of Appeals.
One of the primary sources of research in the case was an analysis of examples of racism against African Americans reported in the campus newspaper over a 22 year period.
As a research tool the paper is an example of an accretion measure (Webb, Campbell, Schwartz, Sechrest, & Grove; 1981), that is, one that accumulates or builds up naturally over time. Accretion measures such as the newspaper have the advantage of being laid down or accumulated without anyone's prior knowledge of what the data may be used for or how it will be measured. It can also be called a nonreactive measure (Webb et al., 1981), because there is independence as far as the generation of the data (articles, editorials) and the research purposes in collecting the data are concerned.
Stability of the school newspaper is another advantage in using it as a way of documenting racism over time. The newspaper was published consistently over the entire period studied without any lapses during the academic year. There were no periods of time not represented by the regular production of the paper. The campus newspaper was also more likely than the local papers to focus regularly on events and situations relevant to campus life, including the racial climate.
Biased reporting might be a concern, since papers may show a certain perspective in their reporting. Any biases in reporting would likely average out over the period, which covered differing political and social climates.
The nature of the research was not to measure the accuracy, tone, or nuances of specific events as reported in the newspaper. The attempt was being made to establish another way of examining changes in the racial climate on campus over time, and the
results of the research were used to corroborate other independent findings of racism and discrimination on campus. Whether or not an event was reported with total accuracy then was not the issue. The issue was that somehow, it was newsworthy; and as such, it related to the purpose of the study. That an event relevant to discrimination was in the paper at all was the only thing that mattered, and all events were counted equally in the final tallies.
All of the issues of the school newspaper were on microfilm at the campus library. This was beneficial in insuring that the format of the paper itself was not much of a factor in calling special attention to a certain type of article. In other words, there were no disadvantages to an articles's appearing "buried" on the back page of an issue, for example; since all pages appeared uniform on the microfilm.
Each page of every issue of the paper was viewed for examples of negative racial climate; and once found, a copy of the article was made on the spot and was dated for further reference. Negative racial climate was defined as articles, commentary, or letters to the editor indicating undesirable or negative consequences for Black students or faculty/staff (See Sedlacek, in press). Two graduate students collecting the data worked together at the beginning to make sure they both had the same basic idea about what they were looking for. They were able to share examples of the kinds of items that were likely to
contain an example of discrimination. Examples included articles about admissions, retention, new organizations, speakers invited to the campus, faculty members' not receiving tenure when expected, student government association meetings, demonstrations, and athletic team rule changes. Almost any aspect of campus life could containrelevant information. sometimes, it was not possible for the datacollectors to be sure of the content of an article from skimming through it, and they would have to stop and read it more carefully. They became aware of the fact that once one form of racism had been dealt with and was receding from prominence in the news, the racism itself seemed to go underground for a while and then re-emerge in the form of another issue.
After all of the articles had been copied, the data collectors tallied the number of incidents per year into separate categories for students and faculty/staff. These categories were grouped according to academic and nonacademic areas of campus life for students. Academic categories were admissions, lack of role models, negative attitudes, and fewer graduates. Nonacademic categories were living arrangements, social life, alienation, negative attitudes, and other/general. For faculty/ staff, the examples of negative racial climate were categorized simply into academic and nonacademic groupings. These tallies can be found on Tables 1 and 2.
Tables 1 shows a consistent pattern of the reporting of examples of negative racial climate against Black students across the years. An example from each year studied is reported below:
On February 16, 1970, an article appeared about a Black professor in which she indicated that she started thinking about "Negro" rights under the Constitution when one of her students asked if Whites had a constitutional right to kill Blacks.
An October 5, 1971 ad read "There is a noticeable absence of Black folks on this campus today. Maybe you're wondering why that is. [Student] is Black. [Student] finished 88 in a class of 547 in a predominantly white high school. [Student] belonged to the National Honor Society, and was a cheerleader. When subjected to a predictive index, [Student] predicts at a 1.69 g.p.a. Next year, [Student] could only enter [University] as an exception. The new admissions policy is not racist. Right. Governor [Name]'s office is in [City, State]. Black Folks, today, are in [City] too."
An editorial titled "Institutional Racism Still With Us" criticized the school for not doing enough to encourage Black student enrollment on January 6, 1972.
On September 6, 1973, the president of a Black social organization wrote a letter to the editor complaining that no Black organizations, fraternities, or sororities were listed on the calendars where white fraternities and sororities were listed. She said, "The media can find out anything else that's
going on on campus but neverseems to find out what we are doing. What is the deal?"
In the November 22, 1974 issue, Black Student Union officials were reported to have met to discuss "death threats" that had been made against students active in Black organizations on campus.
"Blacks Air Charges Against (Radio Station)" was the title of a September 8, 1975 article discussing frustrations Blacks felt over programming when time was reduced for a Black-oriented radio show on the campus radio station.
April 13, 1976 was the day an article discussing the scarcity of Blacks on the campus baseball team appeared; and possible racist implications were presented. The baseball coach was quoted as saying "The joking think among the coaches is to get one or two Blacks and get the pressure off your backs. I don't believe in that because then I have to get a Jew, an Italian, a Chinaman, you know what I mean?"
On October 26, 1977, the lead article in the paper was entitled "Campus Integration Lags". The article indicated that the university was not making progress in enrolling and retaining Blacks.
Complaints of Black faculty, students, and administrators were discussed in a March 7, 1978 article, "Legislators Hear Black Gripes". A Black student cited examples of teachers' doubting her work and students' destroying personal belongings as she talked about having "suffered 'numerous' racial abuses since
she came to the university. I have lost absolute faith that there can be any changes. I don'tthink I'll ever become an attorney."
A student wrote a letter to the editor or December 3, 1979. She said that her decision to come to the university was based on many factors but that it was the [Name] scholarship that helped her make a final decision.
In another letter to the editor appearing on March 3, 1980, "Who cares how many Blacks attend this school? Black or White we're just people with different skin pigments. I see no one breaking his butt to make sure there are enough blondes in this school." was the sentiment expressed.
On February 20, 1981, the director of freshman English at the university shared a letter written to an English teacher which in part said "We understand you are trying to ram M.L. King down unwilling throats! Don't you think you had better reconsider this?" The letter was signed "Ty-Bo-Tim chief Klaxon K.K.K."
A February 8, 1982 article presented objections to the university Black Student Union's (BSU) bringing a controversial speaker to campus. A state legislator wanted to freeze BSU funds, because the speaker was primarily political. Others quoted in the article noted that other political speakers sponsored by other groups did not receive protests.
A February 25, 1983 editorial criticized the Black Student Union for being too secretive and questioned the amount of funding for the group.
An April 17, 1984 editorial noted that Black students on campus must still "see that ghost of racism everyday" and that the retention of Black students was lower than it should be.
On May 7, 1985, an editorial noted that "KKK" was spray painted on the campus mascot. The writer posed the question, "If you were a Black parent preparing to send a son or daughter to college, which campus would you prefer? The traditionally Black campus where low endowments and low enrollment keep program quality below richer, Whiter, peer institutions? Or would you rather send you children to a traditionally White campus where White students are sometimes so unaware of racism they don't know when they are being offensive?"
A report of an incident in which a Black male student attending an outdoor fraternity party heard over a public address system a listing of awards to the fraternity's pledges including "To [Pledge's name] who FUCKED a Black girl." appeared in a letter to the editor on May 16, 1986. The letter writer was then approached by a drunken White male and asked to leave.
An article on February 3, 1987 written by a student noted a number of examples of racism she had observed including racial prejudices which surfaced during a discussion in a journalism class about whether a reporter should have described a person's race during an eyewitness account of the Vietnam War.
"Observe the appearance of any Black fraternity. They wear camouflage fatigues with military boots.This might be a subliminal preparation of an all out war against Whites." was a quote from an article appearing on September 12, 1988.
On April 26, 1989, an incident was discussed where a student took her teacher aside and asked if the class could read any other Shakespeare play besides Othello. The student insisted after the teacher gave reasons to stay with Othello, and at that point the teacher wondered if the request was racially motivated. The teacher who wrote the letter also said "I am reminded, in one way or another, of the deep division between my black [sic] and white [sic] students. Since Farrakhan's visit I have seen and heard a number of these sorts of incidents and they scare me." "I listened as a young governmnet and politics major screamed cuss words at the people at the shanty (added - antiapartheid exhibit). I watched as one of my Black students, normally a mild enough girl, walked out of class after being told by a white student that the media was blowing things out of proportion in South Africa, that things were not that bad for the Black South Africans. Rather than yell, the student simply got up and left. And I read as one of my Black students wrote of her tears and anger and frustration at her White roommate's racial slurs against her. The litany might go on for pages. Such is the climate here at [University]."
On February 16, 1990, a Black student reported "When you walk into a class the first day and see that you're the only Black person, sometimes, it becomes hard to adjust and fit in."
In a June 20, 1991 article, a recipient of the [Name] Scholarship said "[Name] scholars try to serve as mentors for incoming Black students who have lots of questions and may feel like they don't have contacts on campus." Another [Name] scholar noted that one day in class a "girl got really vehement ... She didn't understand why Blacks with somewhat lower grades and test scores could get scholarships while she had to work to get through. It was hard to explain to her that [Name] scholarships are merit-based and that there's no other way some of us could go to school."
In nearly all years examined between 1970 and 1991, there was at least one example of negative racial climate for Black faculty or staff depicted in the school newspaper. About twice as many examples occurred in the nonacademic compared to the academic area (Table 2). An example from each year in which at least one reported instance of negative racial climate was located follows:
In a May 14, 1971 letter to the editor a Black counselor in the admissions office felt he had been misquoted in the school newspaper and said the article entitled "Dorm tension may increase" was "a pathological interpretation of reality and possibly criminal in its effect if not in its intent." He
further stated "Unless the (School Newspaper] is prepared to adopt more responsible and objective reporting policies, it may well find itself (to) be 'used' to create racial tension where it does not already exist."
"Stop this University Administration from pitting Blacks and Whites against each other" was a statement in a letter to the editor on september 21, 1972. In this letter, the "Ad Hoc Committee to End Institutional Racism" discussed the library school's problem of discrimination against faculty by the dean.
An October 18, 1973 article quoted the university Chancellor's reaction to the fact that minority group members who applied for classified employment were never interviewed for the positions: "Appalling ....This is in direct violation of institution policy."
On February 6, 1974, the newspaper reported that for the first time in its history, the university had a Black dean. She was hired in the College of Human Ecology in an acting capacity.
A letter to the editor on November 19, 1975 from the vice chairman of the Black Faculty Staff Association complained about an incident in which a Black male counselor on campus was forced to stand "spread eagle" and was handcuffed in "full view of several students and faculty members. He was taken to the campus security headquarters where he was kept from approximately 10:30 am to 5:30 pm." The letter further read, "It seems that the officer thought (Name) resembled a drawing circulated more than a year ago. The officer's alleged observation was made while
driving as the officer's vehicle passed (Name)'s automobile traveling in the opposite direction."
In a March 31, 1976 article, the vice president of a Black fraternity called for minorities to fill two vacant administrative posts. He stated, "The problem here is that Black students cannot identify with the faculty here. There are few Black teaching assistants and the number of(Black) professors is next to none."
A math department committee report which was critical of the department because it had not "effectively increased the number of Blacks and women on the faculty" was discussed in an article on February 9, 1977. The committee suggested that the division recognize that Black and female job candidates may "serve special functions in the department as role models" for minority students.
"Blacks are left out of University matters because of active 'segregationist' practices and more recently with token involvement with the University through policies and practices of benign neglect." Such was the charge made by the State NAACP president in a letter to the Board of Regents appearing in the paper on January 23, 1978. He further called for a panel of Black community members to screen candidates for president of the University.
The lead article on January 23, 1979 noted that two Black administrators criticized a female campus vice chancellor for criticizing the Black male financial aid director. She was
quoted as saying "There are gaps in the backgrounds of a minority or a woman which there are not for say, a White male."
On April 23, 1980, the president of the Black Graduate Student Association "blasted" a campus vice chancellor for "denying the group a representative on a search committee that is to pick a graduate studies dean" and called the vice chancellor "grossly insensitive to the needs of Black students."
On February 4, 1981 an article about the denial of tenure to the first Black hired by the art department appeared. The professor involved filed a formal complaint with the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and charged that he had been passed over for promotion while White members who entered the department with him in 1968 had received several promotions including tenure. He said he remains among the lowest-paid members of the department.
About 50 Black Student Union members protested in front of a campus building while a White South African candidate was being interviewed for a family studies faculty position according to a March 4, 1982 article. The BSU was protesting the rejection the previous year of a Black woman who applied for the same position. That woman filed a discrimination claim against the university with the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. "It shows a lack of concern on the part of the university to even consider hiring someone from South Africa" the BSU president said.
A September 7, 1983 article discussed a Black food services employee who was fired because of "blatantracism". The employee said "his authority as a crew manager was constantly undermined because of his race". "I worked like an animal the whole six months I was there and if I missed one little detail I could be in trouble to the point of being fired because I'm Black" the employee was quoted as saying.
An article appearing April 23, 1984 noted that the university's first Black vice president was appointed the previous Friday.
"Hope for hire" was the title of an October 29, 1987 editorial in which the author declared "In the last six years, the number of Black professors has increased from a campus average of 3.2 percent to 3.4 percent of the total faculty. For an administration that professes a determination to recruit Black faculty, that minuscule increase should be no source of pride."
In a February 22, 1989 article the difficulties of obtaining data on Blacks in science were cited. A science historian visiting the campus was quoted a saying "Statistical studies on Blacks in science had (as) many columns with zero as entry for various years."
A March 18, 1991 interview with the president of the Black Faculty and Staff Association indicated that one of the most important problems facing Blacks on campus was "concern that we have so few tenured faculty here at (University Name)." "The larger number of us are in the clerical or supportive areas."
When asked if she thought racism still exists on campus, she said "Yes. Sure it does. We've gotsome clear-cut examples and its hard to understand why we've never had a Black dean. Does that mean we can't find a Black person who is smart enough to be a dean? I would think that's not true."
Conclusions and Implications
Articles, commentary, and letters to the editor with negative implications for Black students have been consistently reported by the school newspaper: More examples of negative racial climate were categorized in nonacademic areas for students than in academic ones. These nonacademic examples tended be characterized as relating either to negative attitudes and "other/general" areas of experience. Not surprisingly, within the nonacademic arenas of college life there are more opportunities for racial discrimination to be expressed without censorship and for these expressions to have a potential to develop to some extent before being balanced by the effects of other points of view. Whereas in the academic settings of college life, legal and social restraints may exist which serve to limit the extent of expressions of discrimination or to channel them through quieter or less visible means of expression.
Also, policy decisions made in the academic areas may take some time to become known or for their effects to be felt by students. In addition, awareness of discriminatory practices in academic areas may be delayed by the effect of the tendency of people to accept the status quo while theirattention and efforts
are more focused on course work and earning their degrees. In effect, concern for such matters as providing adequate role models for African American students is not foremost in the minds of most White students pursuing a college degree. Also, at a time when the number of African American students on campus was very small, the voices of those students in determining admissions and retention policies were not as clear.
The academic area of greatest occurrence for examples of discrimination was in admissions with a more recent trend toward retention, as reflected in the increased number of examples in the category "fewer graduates" in the 1980's and early 1990's.
Fewer examples relating to Black faculty/staff have been reported. Results are reported on Black faculty/staff because of the roles they play in the lives of Black students. The fact that the opportunities for racial discrimination toward Black faculty/staff exist in a less visible and less publicized area of campus life may partially account for the smaller number of examples among this population. It may also be more difficult for faculty/staff to vocalize their views when they are dependent on the administration and their departmental hierarchies for decisions regarding tenure, pay, and the continuation of their employment.
There has been a general depiction of a hostile and difficult environment for Black students at the school. Black students who may not have personally experienced negative treatment may still feel alienated from reading of such examples
over time. This feeling of alienation along with difficulties in coping with racism have been shown by other research (Sedlacek, 1987; Sedlacek, 1993) to be related to lower grades and the tendency to leave school.
This form of historical research was most valuable as a tool to support other findings related to the racial climate on the campus. Survey research offers the advantage of statistical rigor, while qualitative research lends support, insight, and specificity to statistically significant data. Negative attitudes measured in surveys are more clearly articulated and exemplified as a result of a methodical search for how those attitudes appear in the real life of a campus and how they affect the individuals and groups of minority students.
Student affairs has a role and obligation to monitor and intervene in issues of racial discrimination on campus. Research offers one way to do this. After all, discrimination is still here regardless of the legal status of programs. The best way to plan, justify, and defend programs needed to deal with it and to answer resurgent doubts is with data!
When faced with similar challenges, colleges and universities can take advantage of data already at their disposal if they choose an historical research technique such as the one proposed here. On this campus, compelling reasons to justify continuation of a race-based scholarship in the data chronicled by the student newspaper were found, and those results were an important part of the university's legal defense.
Additionally, colleges and universities might also choose to engage in this type of research before they are faced with lawsuits. Periodic evaluation of the racial climate on campuses is less time-consuming and offers opportunities for more prevention and ongoing adjustments or "fine tuning" of existing programs.
One school's use of the campus newspaper to keep racespecific scholarship can be a model for other schools who wish to review their programs. In spite of optimistic attitudes and wishes and the general perception of progress, the newspaper revealed ongoing racism, and the university was able to use that information to justify an important scholarship program that contributes to attracting, retaining, and graduating a diverse student population.
Examples of Negative Racial Climate for Black Students
As Shown in the School Newspaper*
1970's 1980's 1990-1991
Admissions 173 110 6
Lack of Role Models 6 11 1
Negative Attitudes 13 16 10
Fewer Graduates 13 56 10
Total Academic 205 193 27
Living Arrangements 17 0 0
Social Life 50 64 18
Alienation 23 3 6
Negative Attitudes 120 248 97
Total Nonacademic 210 315 121
Other/General 315 301 47
Grand Total 730 809 195
* The campus daily newspaper is published 5 days per week during Spring and Fall Semesters and once a week in the Summer Session.
Examples of Negative Racial Climate for Black Faculty/Staff
As Shown in the School Newspaper*
1970's 1980's 1990-1991
Academic 30 12 1
Nonacademic 51 26 0
Total 81 38 1
* The campus daily newspaper is published 5 days per week during Spring and Fall Semesters and once a week in the Summer Session.
Jaschik, S. (1994, February 23). Education department upholds most minority scholarships. The Chronicle of Higher Education XL (25), pp. A24, A26.
Jordan, M. (1993, December 14). Segregation in schools increases. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A6.
Sedlacek, W.E. (1987). Black students on white campuses: 20 years of research. Journal of College Student Personnel, 28, 484495.
Sedlacek, W.E. (1993). Employing noncognitive variables in admissions and retention in higher education. In Achieving diversity: Issues in the recruitment and retention of underrepresented racial/ethnic students in higher education. (pp. 33-39). Evanston, IL: National Association of College Admission Counselors.
Sedlacek, W.E. (in press). Using research to reduce racism at a university. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development.
Sutter, R. (1994, February 7). When yesterday's traditions are thankfully past. Outlook, 8(14), pp. 1,6.
Webb, E.J., Campbell, D.T., Schwartz, R. D., Sechrest, L. & Grove, J.B. (1981). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.